Dr. Hollis Scarborough’s Reading Rope (2001)
taken from International Dyslexia Association

Background Knowledge


vocabulary depth more predictive of comprehension than vocabulary breadth (Speaking and Listening tab)

Language Structures

Verbal Reasoning

Literacy Knowledge

A Layered Model of Effective Comprehension Instruction
Nell K. Duke, Alessandra E. Ward & P. David Pearson
“The Science of Reading Comprehension Instruction”
The Reading Teacher, 2021